We are living in a very fast developing and globalizing world. Every development is due to modernisation, improvement of old administration methods and the use of new technology. With the improvement of electronic media and daily reports on achievements electronic media dominates over print media that are the oldest form of Mass Media.
Nevertheless Print Media are still forming an important part of Media Industry. Basically said, words printed with ink on paper that is attached in different ways, provides different kinds of information, education and entertainment. They consists of cover, chapters or themes, pictures, advertising and so on and mostly big emphasis is made on make-up. There are three types of Print Media: Books are seen as the cultural heritage providing literature, scientific reports, history etc. Newspapers unite news, articles and advertisement in a frequent and regular manner. Magazines focus on deeper research on topics and usually offer feature stories, interpretation, analysis or research. Print Media is searching a large audience but it mainly refers to educated readers and those who are not used to handle electronic media. Newspapers, as well as magazines are financed through advertising and circulation which makes ad more effective. It’s not so easy to publish a book successfully. Therefore promotion campaigns are usual. The increasing competition from TV, the Internet and Radio makes it difficult for Print Media to survive on the market. More and more e-books are bought, free news and information are distributed through the internet and the society becomes more and more attracted to TV programmes that are not as psychological exhausting as books e.g.
You can find national and multinational publisher, as well as general or specialized ones. According to papers and magazines there will always be group work. The team consists of publisher, editor, editorial staff, reporter, designer, circulation staff and management/advertising staff. However, group ownership and conglomeration leads to dependence and prevents diversity and plurality.
Every type of Print Media, books, newspapers and magazines, competes within their industry as well as with every other type of Mass Media. We speak of intra- and inter-industry competition. But they also complete and cooperate with each other.
This competition system is the same as Electronic Media shows. Broadcasting, like TV and Radio, Film and the Internet are in steady interaction and competition to each other, as well as within their own industry.
In contrast to Print Media, Electronic Media is highly commercialized. There is a mass market for advertisers through TV and every other electronic media industry is very dependent on revenue from ads. There can also be independent and non-commercial owners of electronic media, but commonly you find commercial enterprises, private or public owners and companies. For film industry it is more usual that ownership is divided into producer, distributor and exhibitor. In that case the direc-audience-revenue is more important than the revenue of advertising. For the Internet it is rarely clear wheather a private person or a company owns the content of websites, merchandise projects and so on.
While Print Media has its roots in the invention of book printing by Gutenberg in 1450 the technology of electronic media is much younger. Radio has been the first possibility to allow millions of people throughout vast geographical area to listen simultaneously to the same messages. Now broadcasting content is carried through the airway on a special frequency. These waves are captured and later decoded by receiving sets. The digitalization of these signals has been a big achievement for electronic media. You can watch TV, listen to the Radio and be always on the latest news through the Internet. The Web transports files through hypertext transfer protocols and reaches every part of the world.
A big advantage of electronic media it can be live and the concept of conquering time and space is optimally implied.
Electronic Media is able to provide every branch of human knowledge. Surveillance, interpretation, transmission of values, entertainment and linkage mixed up with a huge amount of advertising characterize its content. Information can be transmitted by audible (Radio) or audio-visuel (TV, film, online) means. They provide speech, music, sound, silence and pictures that combined are forming films. So we can say that this kind of media industry has much more ways to reach the audience than print media industry. As they can offer all sort of information in various ways the audience is becoming larger and larger. Furthermore, the Internet replaces every other media type according to the content. There are online service, online merchandise, online TV, Radio, encyclopedia, e-books, games, etc.
As mentioned above, the competition between Print Media and Electronic Media is very intensive and also within each industry it is not easy to handle. Therefore, earlier Mass Media try to negotiate and coordinate with modern Mass Media like TV and the Internet. Competition not only weakens some enterprises but is necessary for the steady development of the market. Different types of Mass Media profit of each other, they negotiate, collaborate and complete each other. For example TV programmes and new films are presented in Newspapers and on the Internet. You can read magazines and order them online. Radio cites news and comments from newspapers and organize music events that are broadcast by TV. This kind of association of two institutions for mutual benefit is called Symbiosis.
Because of symbiosis of Mass Media the optimal result (to provide best quality to the largest audience), quick development and new achievements are possible.